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物理專業英語名詞解釋

物理專業英語名詞解釋

  part onemechanics力學

  chapter 1 kinematics—uniformly accelerated motion運動學,勻加速運動 frame of reference: 參照系

  position vector and displacement位置向量和位移 speed

  velocity 速度

  instantaneous velocity瞬時速度 velocity components速度分量 acceleration 加速度

  graphical interpretation影象釋義

  uniformly accelerated motion along a straight line 勻加速直線運動 acceleration due to gravity (g) 重力加速度 projectile problems落體問題 relative motion相對運動

  chapter 2 dynamics-- newton's laws of motion動力學 - 牛頓運動定律

  general properties of forces in mechanics:力的基本性質 1 the law of universal gravitation萬有引力定律 2the weight 重量

  3 the tensile force 拉力 4 the normal force 法向力 5 the friction force 摩擦力 6 dimensional analysis三維分析

  chapter 3 equilibrium平衡

  concurrent forces共點力are forces whose lines of action all pass through a common point. the forces acting on a point object are concurrent because they all pass through the same point, the point object.

  equilibrium 平衡 rigid body剛體

  the torque (or moment) 轉矩或力矩

  the two conditions for equilibrium 平衡的兩個條件 the center of gravity 重心 axis軸

  chapter 4 work and energy功和能

  kinetic energy (ke) 動能 conservative force保守力

  ⑵ gravitational (weight) potential energy (peg) 重力(重量)勢能 ⑵ elastic potential energy 彈性勢能 the efficiency 效率

  chapter 5 impulse and momentum

  the linear momentum 衝量與動量 an impulse 衝量

  collisions and explosions碰撞和爆炸

  a perfectly elastic collision 完全彈性碰撞

  coefficient of restitution恢復係數 the center of mass重心

  chapter 6 rotation轉動

  the angular speed 角速度

  the angular acceleration 角加速度 tangential 【數】切線;正切 centripetal acceleration ( )加速度 the centripetal force 向心力

  chapter 7 rigid-body rotation剛體轉動

  the moment of inertia 轉動慣量 parallel-axis theorem平行軸定理

  chapter 8 elasticity彈性

  elasticity彈性;彈力

  the stress 【物】應力[u][c] strain 應變

  the elastic limit彈性極限

  the shear modulus切變模量

  standard atmospheric pressure標準大氣壓 the hydrostatic pressure靜水壓力 equation of continuity連續性方程 the viscosity粘度 spring彈簧

  a restoring force 恢復力

  simple harmonic motion 簡諧運動 vibratory motion 振動運動

  the period ( ) 【數】迴圈節;週期 the frequency ( ) 頻率

  the elastic potential energy 彈性勢能 the simple pendulum單擺

  chapter 11 wave motion波動

  a propagating wave 波傳播 wave terminology波術語 in-phase vibrations同相振動 standing waves駐波

  conditions for resonance共振的.條件

  longitudinal (compressional) waves 縱向(擠壓)波 chapter 12 sound聲音 the intensey (i) 強度 loudness 響度 beats節拍

  doppler effect 多普勒效應 interference effects 干擾效應

  part twothermodynamics熱力學

  chapter 1 the kinetic theory of gases第1章氣體動力學理論

  avogadro's number ( ) 阿伏伽德羅數() the root mean square speed根均方速度 the absolute temperature絕對溫度

  the mean free path (m.f.p.) 平均自由程(m.f.p.) the equipartition theorem of energy 能量均分定理 ideal gas law理想氣體定律 heat 熱

  the internal energy 內部能量

  an isobaric process is a process carried out at constant pressure. 等壓過程是恆壓進行的過程。 an isovolumic process is a process carried out at constant volume等容過程是在定容進行了過程 an isothermal process is a constant-temperature process. 等溫過程,是一個恆溫的過程。 an adiabatec process is one in which no heat is transferred to or from the system. 絕熱過程是一個在無熱量或從系統中轉移到。 specific heats of gases比熱氣體 specific heat ratio ( )比熱比() entropy熵disorder無序

  the most probable state 最概然狀態

  part threeelectromagnetism電磁

  electric charge電荷

  electrostatic field靜電場

  superposition principle疊加原理 equipotential surface等勢面 potential gradiant電勢梯度 dielectrics電介質

  electrostatic induction靜電感應 capacitance電容

  parallel-plate capacitor平行板電容器 polarization極化 resistance電阻

  ammeter and voltmeter電流表和電壓表 resistivity電阻率

  magnetic phenomena磁現象 the magnetic moment磁矩

  torque on a flat coil平面線圈上的扭矩 magnetic permeability磁導率

  electromagnetic induction電磁感應 inductance 電感 self-inductance 自感 mutual inductance互感 inductor電感器

  electric generators 發電機

  electric motors電機

  alternating current交流電

  the impedance ( ) . 阻抗(z)。 resonance共振

  a transformer 變壓器

  part fouroptics光學

  geometrical optics幾何光學

  electromagnetic radiation電磁輻射 plane mirrors平面鏡 spherecal mirrors 球面鏡 mirror equation鏡公式 refraction折射

  index of refraction ( )折射率(n) critical angle臨界角 a prisim 稜鏡 thin lense薄透鏡

  magnifying glass放大鏡 a microscope顯微鏡 a telescope望遠鏡 interference 干涉 diffraction衍射

  coherent waves 相干波

  single-slit diffraction單縫衍射 limit of resolution 極限解析度 diffraction grate衍射光柵 optical path length光程

  par t5 -----chapter 3 the structure of atoms原子結構

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